【英语】高中英语语法系列:虚拟语气,难点要掌握!

日期:2020-02-04/ 分类:博友购彩平台

If it should snow tomorrow, I would stay at home.

May good luck be yours!

要不是有你,我就不会恢复得这么快。

3、表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟语气

(动词不定式带有假设的意思,相当于If you should talk with her...)

He suggested that I went to the hospital at once.

有必要把程序输入电脑。

按照要求作文必须单面誊写。

If it were Sunday tomorrow, I would go and see my friends.

我宁愿昨天没有看那场电影。

条件从句中不管什么人称都用should do,可表示有偶然实现的可能性。

1、表示与现在事实相反的条件

If I were a bird, I could fly in the air.

祝您快乐!

advice建议

Were I in your position,I would not do it.

(四)错综条件句

You wouldn't know. 

请这边走。

Had you taken my advice, you wouldn't have failed in the exam.

你完全可以早点儿起来!(实际上没有早起)

要是我早点儿认识她就好了!

(条件暗含在分词短语happening in the past中)

If the headmaster were to come, what would we say to him.

How I missed the life in the countryside!

Where there is a will, there's a way.

我要把你的电话号码记下来,以免忘记。

If wishes were horses, beggars might ride.

如果他真是诚实的,那我们就相信他。

今天早上要是没下雨,我就去买东西了。

Do be careful when crossing the street.

你不会知道。

If only you had told me the truth before.

I wish I were a bird.

You could have got up a little earlier!

在表示祝愿的感叹句中,用动词原形,表示愿望。

(三)表示愿望的感叹句

在It is (high) time (that) ...结构中,定语从句的谓语动词用过去式,表示“到某人该做某事的时间了”。

②过去完成时had done,表示过去不可能实现的愿望

倘若我们没有修建这么多的水库,洪水就会使人民遭受巨大的损失。

如果明天要下雪的话,我就留在家里。

B. insist作“坚决要求”解时,用虚拟语气,作“坚持认为”解时,用陈述语气。

3、表示在将来不太可能实现的条件

我多么想念乡村的生活啊!

上帝保佑你!

She emphasized it again and again, lest he (should) forget.

我让他自己去那里,但也许我应该和他一道去。

1、主语从句中的虚拟语气

(四)情态动词用于虚拟语气

他建议我坚持自己的决定。(建议)

(2)在动词wish后的宾语从句中用虚拟语气,表示不可能实现的愿望。

如果昨天我知道你的电话号码,我就给你打电话了。

要是我做这项工作,我就会以不同的方式去做。

A. suggest作“建议”解时,用虚拟语气,作“使想起、暗示”解时,用陈述语气。

Should I have time, I would call on her.

To talk with her, you would know she could not hear well.

(= Iwish I had known her earlier.)

我宁可你今天走。

有志者事竟成。

If I were you, I should go and try.

虚拟语气除主要用于非真实条件句外,还可用在部分主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、定语从句和状语从句之中。

中华人民共和国万岁!

请你明天再提醒我这件事,以免我忘记。

He mighthave said so.

I'd rather not go to the movies.

如果我处在你的位置,我是不会干这件事的。

动词的-ed形式:arranged, suggested, ordered, required, desired,demanded,proposed等

如果你现在给他打电话,你就可以把问题解决了。

(五)含蓄条件句

昨天很冷,我该穿件厚外套的。(但我没穿)

The students hope that their football team will win the game.

We shall go there unless it rains tomorrow.

如果你此刻犹豫不决,你将来会吃苦头的。

【必背】表示建议、劝告、命令等含义的名词常见的有:

Were it necessary, I might go without delay.

我希望你现在就回家。

你要是听了我的建议,就不会考试不及格了。

她要是有时间,就会帮我了。

形容词:important,necessary, urgent, essential, vital, natural, strange, proper等

(2)在inorder that和so that引导的目的状语从句中,往往用can(could)或may(might)。

(三)省略if的条件句

B. 后接不用连词的that从句

看样子他好像很年轻。(他就是年轻)

It would do you no good.

正是我们开会的时间了。

他一定是去过那儿,否则他绝不会对那个地方如此熟悉。

明天如果他在这里的话,我就和他谈谈。

Whether he (should) succeed or fail, we shall have to do our part.

(从句yesterday说明过去,主句now说明现在)

The Lord save us!

If only位于句首引起的感叹句用虚拟语气,动词用一般过去时表示目前的愿望,用过去完成时表示过去的愿望,用would或could表示将来。

陈述语气一般用来叙述事实或就事实提出询问,主要用于陈述句、疑问句和某些感叹句。

(二)非真实条件句

Left to himself, he could not have finished the work.

没有你的帮助,他就不会有今天的成果。

部分情态动词的过去形式(could,might, should, would),可以用于非真实条件句以及其他结构中表示虚拟语气。

(一)If only......

May you be happy!

(2)表示惊讶

让步状语从句指事实时,从句谓语动词用陈述语气。若从句内容表示现在和将来的假设情况,从句谓语动词用虚拟语气。

He insists that he (should) do morning exercises every day.

Could he have done such a foolish thing?

看样子他好像很年轻。(实际上他不年轻)

虚拟语气,又称假设语气,是谓语动词的一种形式,表示说话人叙述的内容与事实相反,在现实中并不存在,或实现的可能性很小。

这位老师对待这位学生就像自己的亲生孩子一样。(这位学生并不是她的亲生孩子)

我宁愿打网球,也不愿游泳。

但愿四季如春。

demand要求

(一)陈述语气

He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people's health.

I wish it were spring all the year round.

3、让步状语从句

教育要改革的建议是合理的。

假如下雨,庄稼可能就有救了。

If he were here tomorrow, I would speak to him.

If onlyI had known her earlier!

The teacher treats the pupil as if he were her own child.

真可惜,我应当在学校而不是躺在医院里。

【注意】在很多情况下,我们也可以用was来代替当主语是第一人称或第三人称单数时的were。

Which would you rather have, tea or coffee?

我把真实情况告诉你,使你能自己作出判断。

他建议我们立刻去医院。(原应用shouldgo)

order命令

There could be something wrong with the tape recorder.

(= If it were necessary......)

Would you mind opening the window?劳驾把窗子打开,好吗?

would like to have done本来想

I would rather I hadn't seen that film yesterday.

一、动词的语气

I wouldrather you left today.

His silence suggested that he agreed with mydecision.

主句中的动词、名词、形容词如表示要求、建议、命令或愿望等含义,与其相关的名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)中的谓语动词要用虚拟语气。

He suggested that I (should) stick to mydecision.

I would prefer he didn't stay here too long.

(一)真实条件句

最好我们在另一个时间见面。

你喜欢喝茶,还是咖啡?

(二)祈使语气

Why didn't you tell me about it I should have helped you.

3、条件用其他形式来表示

条件从句用were to do。这种形式比较正式,常出现在书面语中,其假设成份很大,实现的可能性很小。

在含有非真实条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词都要用虚拟语气,其构成有三种形式:

这种错误完全能避免。

第三章 虚拟语气

他的沉默暗示他赞同我的决定。(暗示)

如果你昨天不看电视,你现在也就不会这么困了。

真希望我昨天见过她。

由as if或as though引导的状语从句可以用陈述语气表示可能符合事实的情况,也可以用虚拟语气表示与事实不符或与事实相反的情况。

No matter what his social position (might) be, a man is equal in the eye of the law.

If they had left home early this morning, they would arrive in half anhour.

③表示与将来事实不相符,用would/might/could

If it were to snow tomorrow, I would stay at home.

(1)由incase, lest, for fear that引导的目的状语从句,动词用“should 动词原形”结构,表示忧虑或目的。

你们不妨把讨论推迟到下个星期。

If he were here tomorrow...

Though he (should) fail, there would still be hope.

The suggestion that education (should) be reformed is reasonable.

(二)would rather

我希望我的女儿能上公立学校。

They could have won. 

I would like to have talked with you.

我想和你谈一谈。(现在想)

要求他立刻离开。

【比较】

可能性较小:

(三)虚拟语气

I'd rather play tennis than swim.

I would rather my daughter attended a public school.

如果需要的话,我可以立即去。

你可以替我回这个电子邮件。

我感觉我们好像认识多年了。(其实并没有认识多年)

如果他八点不来,我们就不等他了。

I wish she had taken my advice.

条件从句用动词的过去式(be动词用were),主句用should(第一人称)或would(全部人称) 动词原形。也可用could, might代替should, would。

It will be better that we (should) meet some other time.

If he doesn't come at 8, we won't wait for him.

She was ill, otherwise she would have been present at the meeting.

would rather, would prefer, would sooner等后接从句,表示“宁愿”,动词用过去时表示当时和将来的情况,用过去完成时表示过去的情况。

I wish I could see him now.

If Icould speak French, I would teach you.

It was cold yesterday. I should have worn a heavy coat.

你能将电话号码和地址留给我吗?

I wish you would stay an hour longer.

(条件通过连词otherwiseor表示出来If shehad not been ill...)

他坚持认为做早操对健康有益。(强调)

希望一切在今晚前准备就绪。

1、条件暗含在短语中

但愿雨能停。

If you hesitated this moment, you might suffer in the future.

(条件可能是ifyou had been more careful如果你更加小心一点的话)

We would trust him if he should be honest.

但愿天能下点儿雨!

We shall write down the address lest we forget.

设想你是个宇航员。(原应用were)

展开全文

一个人不论其社会地位如何,在法律面前都是平等的。

如果你同她交谈,你就会知道她的听力不好。

It is suggested that each student (should) sing a song in English.

If onlyhe knew the answer.

常用形式:

A. 后接不带to的不定式

If you dropped the glass, it would break.

Such mistakes could have been avoided.

(三)定语从句中的虚拟语气

If onlyI could speak several foreign languages!

The flood might have caused great damages to the people if we had not built so many reservoirs.

Could you leave me your telephone number and address?

常见的宾语从句中需用“should 动词原形”的动词有:

真奇怪他竟看不到自己的缺点。

你起先记不住是很自然的。

We will tell you the truth so that you can judge for yourself.

You could answer this email for me.

考官要求学生不要使用计算器。

假如校长来了,我们对他说什么呢?

If only it would rain.

(1)were/did

四、其他句型中的虚拟语气

suggestion 建议

重要的是我们要制订出一个学习计划。

I told him to go there himself, but perhaps I should have gone together with him.

两个命令:order,command

当代英语一个显著的变化就是虚拟语气的使用越来越少,许多该用虚拟语气的地方都用陈述语气代替。

2、目的状语从句

Come this way, please!

You might as well put off the discussion till next week.

工人们要求增加百分之十的工资。

我们开了一个会,面对面谈了这件事,以免发生任何误会.

(从句说明过去,主句说明将来。)

【对比】

明天要是星期天的话,我就去看望我的朋友。

(1)表示建议或命令

(从句说明现在,主句说明将来)

虚拟语气(could,would, might 动词原形)可使说话者的口气变得委婉客气。

真实条件句表示的假设是可能发生或实现的,主句和从句的谓语动词都要用陈述语气。

Can you help me carry the box upstairs.

同样的事,如发生在过去,就会酿成大祸。

The demand is that the composition (should)be written on one side only.

即使他在这里,我还是要这么说。

即使他失败了,仍有一线希望。

(二)状语从句中的虚拟语气

desire愿望

(条件暗含在介词短语without your help中)

到孩子们睡觉的时间了。

If it snowed tomorrow, I would stay at home.

我希望你再呆一个小时。

他们本来是会赢的。

要是有时间,我就去看她。

四个要求:demand,require,ask,desire

If it had not rained this morning, I should have gone shopping.

(1)在suggest(建议), order(命令), propose(建议),insist(坚持要做), command (命令),request(要求),advise(建议)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用should 动词原形(美国英语常省略should)。

①一般过去时were/did,表示目前不可能实现的愿望

(3)were to do

很奇怪他竟然在如此短的时间内学了那么多的东西。

They worked harder than usual in order that they could finish the work ahead of time.

(条件可能是if you should give up the job如果你放弃这项工作的话)

在表示建议、劝告、命令等含义的名词后的表语从句和同位语从句中,谓语动词要用“should 动词原形”结构。

表示在将来不太可能实现的条件从句有三种形式:

原标题:【英语】高中英语语法系列:虚拟语气,难点要掌握!

你能帮我把箱子搬到楼上吗?

It is desired that we (should) get everything ready by tonight.

虚拟语气表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望、假设或推测等。

如果明天下雪的话,我就留在家里。

If I were to do the work, I should do it in a different way.

(= If you had taken my advice......)

proposal提议

主语从句通常用于“It is 形容词/名词/动词的-ed形式 that ...”结构。主语从句中是否用虚拟语气取决于所用的形容词或动词的-ed形式,其谓语动词常用“should 动词原形”(美国英语常省略should,只用动词原形)。

It is time that the children went to bed.

Long live the People's Republic of China!

I wish I were a bird.

三、虚拟语气在各种从句中的用法

I would like (to have) a word with you.

在书面语中,非真实条件句中有were, had, should时,可以省略if,而把were,had, should放在主语前,用倒装结构。

非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表达出来,只暗含在上下文中,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句。含蓄条件句大体有三种情况:

但倒装句型中的were不可被was来替换。

We had a meeting and talked the matter over face to face for fear that there should be any misunderstanding.

祝你好运!

If it should rain, the crops could be saved.

为什么你不告诉我?我会帮助你的。

It is important that we (should) work out a study plan.

【提示】would rather主要有两种用法:

Success attend you!

【必背】常见的要接含有虚拟语气主语从句的词:

motion提议

【提示】在很多情况下,虚拟式已变成习惯说法,很难找出其暗含的条件。

③过去将来时would/could do,表示将来没有把握或不可能实现的愿望

It is strange that he should have learned somuch in such a short time.

(动词的-ed形式表示条件If hehad been left to himself...)

If a flood happened in the past, there was usually a great loss of life and property.

语气可以用来区别讲话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。英语中的语气有三种,分别是陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。

要是你以前告诉我真相就好了。(用过去完成时表示过去)

I wish that I had seen her yesterday.

2、表示与过去事实相反的条件

(用suppose/supposing/providing等词表示if)

我要是知道答案就好了。

(条件可能是if they had been patient如果他们有耐心的话)

【对比】将来不太可能实现的三种非真实条件句中的虚拟语气:

They requested that he (should) sing a song.

那时她要是接受我的建议就好了。

我愿意和你一起去。

条件从句用动词的过去式(be动词用were),主句用should(第一人称)或would(全部人称) 动词原形。可用情态动词could, might代替should, would表示情态。

It is my desire that all the members of the family (should) gather once a year.我的愿望是所有家庭成员一年团圆一次。

他会做这样的傻事吗?

Please remind me of it again tomorrow in case I (should) forget.

If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I would have telephoned you.

不管雨下得多么大,今晚我们还是要去那里。

为了能提前完成工作,他们比往常更加努力。

她病了,否则的话就会出席会议了。

If she had time, she could help me.

也可以说成:I wish I was a bird.

点此可看:

requirement 要求

This same thing, happening in the past, would lead to a disaster. 

他们要求他唱一首歌。

If you phoned him right now, you might get the matter settled.

一个坚持:insist

1、方式状语从句

我倒希望他不要在这儿呆得太久。

我们要把地址记下来,以免忘记。(原应用shouldforget)

(2)should do

【提示】由于wish和hope的汉语意思差不多,在使用上往往容易出错。wish一般表示“希望”、“但愿”,表示不可能实现的愿望,后接从句时要用虚拟语气;hope表示“希望”,指可以实现的希望,后接从句时用陈述语气。

过马路时一定要小心。

Suppose you were in my shoes, what would you do?

你要是让杯子掉下来,会打碎的。

愿主救我们!

He looks as if he is young.

过去发生洪水的话,常有很大的生命和财产损失。

如果明天下雪的话,我就留在家里。

I would like to go with you. 

Don't make any noise, will you?

这台录音机可能出毛病了。

regulation规章

However hard it might rain rains, we shall go there together.

他要是知道答案就好了。(用过去时表示现在)

如果他们今天一早就离开家的话,再过半小时他们就该到了。

要是放任他的话,他是不可能完成工作的。

她一再强调这一点免得他忘记。

He looks as if he were young.

可能性最小:

It is strange that he should have failed to see his own shortcomings.

虚拟条件句中的主句和从句涉及的动作发生的时间不一致,这时主句和从句的谓语形式应按照各自动作发生的实际时间来表达。

祝你成功!

It is demanded that he should leave at once.

我要是你,我就去试试。

This wall shouldn't have been pained blue.

学生们希望他们的足球队获胜。(可能实现)

But for you, I could not be recovered so soon.

我宁愿不去看电影。

I wish it could stop raining.

也可以说成:If he was here tomorrow...

2、条件可根据上下文推理出

【提示】

(条件暗含在But for you中)

【注意】if only和wish的用法相同,表示的意愿也基本相同。

Imagine you are an astronaut.

decision决定

假若你站在我的立场上,你会怎么办?

二、条件句中的虚拟语气

I should say the same thing even if he were here.

3、表示惋惜或责备

1、表示想像或猜测

不管他成功还是失败,我们还是要做好自己的事。

(=How I wish it would rain.)

He must have been there, or he never could know the place so well. 

It is natural that you should forget it first.

I'll let you use my bike on condition that you keep it clean.

(= If I should have time......)

如果幻想能成为马匹,叫花子都有了坐骑。

这墙不应该漆成蓝色。(但已漆了)

idea意见

2、表示委婉或客气

request 请求

天看上去好像要下雨。(不大可能下雨)

如果给我们更多时间,我们能够干得更好些。(我们并没有得到更多的时间)

这可能会对你没好处。

(条件可能是if you had told me about it如果你当时告诉我的话)

如果我是一只小鸟,我就能在空中飞行。

我希望现在就能看到他。(不可能实现)

God bless you!

虚拟语气常用在表示要求、建议、命令或愿望的动词后的宾语从句中。

我要是能讲几种外语就好了!(用would/could表示将来)

I shall write down your telephone number so that I may not forget.

If you hadn't watched TV yesterday, you wouldn't be so sleepy now.

如果明天不下雨,我们将去那里。

(暗含条件是连词or)

It looksas if it might rain.

He would not get such a result without your help.

My advice is that you (should) practise speaking English as often as possible.我的建议是你尽可能经常地练习说英语。

条件从句用动词的过去完成时,主句用should(第一人称)或would(全部人称) have done,也可用could, might代替should, would。

【比较】动词suggest和insist后面的宾语从句,应根据不同情况选用陈述语气或虚拟语气:

It is necessary that the program (should) beloaded into the computer.

Given more time, we could have done better.

如果我会说法语,我就能教你。(我不会,所以不能教你)

(一)名词性从句中的虚拟语气

It is high time that we began the meeting.

别吵,行吗?

②表示与过去事实不相符,用过去完成时

①表示与现在事实不相符,用一般过去时

I feltas though we had known each other for years.

2、宾语从句

(连词but暗示条件)

祈使语气表示说话人向对方提出请求或下达命令。

The examination instructor asked that the students (should) not use a calculator.

would like to do愿意,想要

他坚持每天都要做早操。(要求)

I'd rather you went home now.

The workers demanded that their wages (should)be raised by 10 percent.

有人建议每个学生都要唱一首英文歌曲。

他可能这样说过。

如果你能保持车子干净,我就让你用我的自行车。

It is a pity shame that I should be at school instead of lying here inhospital.

英语中条件从句有两类,一类是真实条件句,另一类是非真实条件句。如果假设的情况可能发生,是真实条件句;如果假设的情况是不存在的或不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。

三个建议:suggest,advise,propose

I wish I knew the answer.

我原本想和你谈一谈的。(没有谈成)

但愿我是一只小鸟。